Terrestrial Invasive Plants

Invasive species are non-native plants that are disruptive which can cause human health issues, environmental or economic harm.

Common Reed

(Phragmites australis) Common Reed: Can rapidly form dense stands of stems which crowd out or shade native vegetation in inland and estuary wetland areas.

Did you know: Common reed has replaced smooth cordgrass and salt hay grass in extensive areas of tidal marsh.


(Phyllostachys spp) Bamboo: Can grow from 6 inches to more than 25 ft tall. Leaves are longer than they are wide, and have pointed ends that are arranged singly along the leaf stem.

Did you know: Low growing bamboo can be mowed repeatedly to exhaust the root system.

Autumn Olive

(Elaeagnus umbellata) Autumn Olive: Deciduous shrub that can grow to 20 ft in height; stems, buds, and leaves have a dense covering of silvery to rusty scales.

Did you know: It’s also known as a small tree, typically around 3.5 metres or 11 ft tall, with a dense crown.

Asiatic Bittersweet

(Celastrus orbiculatus) Asiatic Bittersweet: Is a woody vine of the Celastraceous family.

Did you know: Manual, Mechanical & Chemical control methods are all effective in removing and killing Bittersweet.

Garlic Mustard

(Alliaria petiolata) Garlic Mustard: One of very few non-native plants to be able to successfully invade forest understories. They are usually found in disturbed woodlots & forest edges.

Did you know: Garlic Mustard seeds are easily spread by people and animals.


(Lonicera spp) Honeysuckles: Several species known collectively as bush honeysuckles grow in a shrub form.

Did you know: Plants should be sprayed between August and October. Shrubs usually grow from 20 to 30 feet, while vines can climb from 30 to 80 feet in height.

Japanese Barberry

(Berberis thunbergii) Japanese Barberry: Deeply grooved, brown, spiny branches with a single spine at each shoot node.

Did you know: No biological control is available for this plant. Wearing thick gloves to protect from spines. Young plants can be pulled up by hand. Shrubs can also be mowed and cut repeatedly.

Japanese Knotweed

(Polygonum cuspidatum) Japanese Knotweed: This plant is an upright, shrubby, herbaceous, woody-appearing perennial reaching heights of 10 to 15 feet.

Did you know: Knotweed spreads rapidly, forming dense thickets that crowd and shade out native vegetation. Once established, populations of Japanese Knotweed are extremely persistent and hard to remove. They have been unknown to grow through black top parking lots.

Japanese Stillgrass

(Microstegium vimineum) Japanese Stiltgrass: Thrive in a wide range of habitats, and is most often associated with acidic to neutral, moist soils that are high in nitrogen. They take advantage of shaded areas but can proliferate in sunny openings.

Did you know: Resembles a small delicate bamboo and has a sprawling growth pattern that goes up to 3.5 feet tall with leaves that are 1-3 inches long.

Mile a Minute

(Polygonum perfoliatum) Mile a Minute: Barbed vine that smothers other herbaceous plants, shrubs and even trees by growing over them. 6 inches per day forms dense mats that cover other plants and then stresses and weakens them through smothering and physically damaging them.

Did you know: Once all plants have been removed, on- going monitoring and management must occur for up to 6 years in order to exhaust any seeds remaining in the soil.

Multi Floral Rose

(Rosa multiflora) Multi Flora Rose: Multi-Stemmed Shrub, sometimes climbing vine, with arching stems and recurved thorns.

Did you know: Effective control of multiflora is possible using chemical, manual, or mechanical means or preferably a combination. Frequent cutting or mowing at the rate of three to six times per growing season for 2 to 4 years has been shown to be the most effective.

Norway Maple

(Acer platinoides) Norway Maple: Broad deciduous tree up to 90 ft in height with broadly rounded crown; bark is smooth at first but becomes black, ridged and furrowed with age, milky sap.

Did you know: Seedlings can be pulled by hand and small to large trees can be cut to the ground, repeating as necessary to control any re-growth from sprouts.


(Ampelopsis brevipedunculata) Porcelainberry: A deciduous, woody vine that climbs to heights of more than 20 ft.

Did you know: Birds are attracted to the fruits and will easily spread it far and wide. Once established difficult to control due to the vigorous root system.


(Ligustrum spp) Privet: Is a thick, evergreen to semi-evergreen shrub up to 30 ft in height.

Did you know: They can easily escape cultivation to invade adjacent areas & can form dense monospecific thickets. They have become common invaders of cultivated landscapes, disturbed areas & wildlands.

Purple Loosestrife

(Lythrum salicaria) Purple Loosestrife: Tall salicaria is a tall multistemmed 30-50 per plant, perennial plant that can grow up to 10 ft.

Did you know: If they get a foothold, the habitat where fish and wildlife feed, seek shelter, reproduce and rear young, quickly becomes choked under a sea of purple flowers.

Tree of Life

(Ailanthus altissima) Tree of Heaven: Is rapidly growing, typically small tree up to 80 ft in height and 6 ft in diameter. It has large leaf scars on the twigs.

Did you know: Tree of heaven is a hardy, fast-growing invasive species capable of out competing native species, and thriving in the most inhospitable conditions.


(Rubus phoenicolasius) Wineberry: Invasive shrub that creates spiny, impenetrable thickets that reduce and area’s value for wildlife habitat and recreation.

Did you know: Wine berries grow vigorously and can form extensive, dense thickets that displace many native species.

Winged Euonymus

(Euonymus alatus) Winged Euonymus: 2 to 4 corky ridges often form along the length of young stems, though they may not appear in shaded areas or closed canopies.

Did you know: Not only can they invade a variety of disturbed habitats that includes: forest edges, old fields, and roadsides but also in undisturbed forests.